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Updated: 12 min 53 sec ago

Deformation and fatigue of tough 3D printed elastomer scaffolds processed by fused deposition modeling and continuous liquid interface production.

12 min 53 sec ago

Deformation and fatigue of tough 3D printed elastomer scaffolds processed by fused deposition modeling and continuous liquid interface production.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2017 Jul 01;75:1-13

Authors: Miller AT, Safranski DL, Wood C, Guldberg RE, Gall K

Abstract
Polyurethane (PU) based elastomers continue to gain popularity in a variety of biomedical applications as compliant implant materials. In parallel, advancements in additive manufacturing continue to provide new opportunities for biomedical applications by enabling the creation of more complex architectures for tissue scaffolding and patient specific implants. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of printed architecture on the monotonic and cyclic mechanical behavior of elastomeric PUs and to compare the structure-property relationship across two different printing approaches. We examined the tensile fatigue of notched specimens, 3D crosshatch scaffolds, and two 3D spherical pore architectures in a physically crosslinked polycarbonate urethane (PCU) printed via fused deposition modeling (FDM) as well as a photo-cured, chemically-crosslinked, elastomeric PU printed via continuous liquid interface production (CLIP). Both elastomers were relatively tolerant of 3D geometrical features as compared to stiffer synthetic implant materials such as PEEK and titanium. PCU and crosslinked PU samples with 3D porous structures demonstrated a reduced tensile failure stress as expected without a significant effect on tensile failure strain. PCU crosshatch samples demonstrated similar performance in strain-based tensile fatigue as solid controls; however, when plotted against stress amplitude and adjusted by porosity, it was clear that the architecture had an impact on performance. Square shaped notches or pores in crosslinked PU appeared to have a modest effect on strain-based tensile fatigue while circular shaped notches and pores had little impact relative to smooth samples. When plotted against stress amplitude, any differences in fatigue performance were small or not statistically significant for crosslinked PU samples. Despite the slight difference in local architecture and tolerances, crosslinked PU solid samples were found to perform on par with PCU solid samples in tensile fatigue, when appropriately adjusted for material hardness. Finally, tests of samples with printed architecture localized to the gage section revealed an effect in which fatigue performance appeared to drastically improve despite the localization of strain.

PMID: 28689135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Enhanced In Vivo Retention of Low Dose BMP-2 Via Heparin Microparticle Delivery Does Not Accelerate Bone Healing in a Critically Sized Femoral Defect.

Mon, 2017-07-10 05:30
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Enhanced In Vivo Retention of Low Dose BMP-2 Via Heparin Microparticle Delivery Does Not Accelerate Bone Healing in a Critically Sized Femoral Defect.

Acta Biomater. 2017 Jun 20;:

Authors: Hettiaratchi MH, Rouse T, Chou C, Krishnan L, Stevens HY, Li MA, McDevitt TC, Guldberg RE

Abstract
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is an osteoinductive growth factor used clinically to induce bone regeneration and fusion. Some complications associated with BMP-2 treatment have been attributed to rapid release of BMP-2 from conventional collagen scaffolds, motivating the development of tunable sustained-release strategies. We incorporated BMP-2-binding heparin microparticles (HMPs) into a hydrogel scaffold to improve spatiotemporal control of BMP-2 delivery to large bone defects. HMPs pre-loaded with BMP-2 were mixed into alginate hydrogels and compared to hydrogels containing BMP-2 alone. BMP-2 release from scaffolds in vitro, BMP-2 retention within injury sites in vivo, and bone regeneration in a critically sized femoral defect were evaluated. Compared to hydrogel delivery alone, BMP-2-loaded HMPs reduced BMP-2 release in vitro and increased early BMP-2 retention in the bone defect. BMP-2-loaded HMPs induced bone formation at both ectopic and orthotopic sites; however, the volume of induced bone was lower for defects treated with BMP-2-loaded HMPs compared to hydrogel delivery. To better understand the effect of HMPs on BMP-2 release kinetics, a computational model was developed to predict BMP-2 release from constructs in vivo. The model suggested that HMPs limited BMP-2 release into surrounding tissues, and that changing the HMP density could modulate BMP-2 release. Taken together, these experimental and computational results suggest the importance of achieving a balance of BMP-2 retention within the bone defect and BMP-2 release into surrounding soft tissues. HMP delivery of BMP-2 may provide a method of tuning BMP-2 release in vivo that can be further investigated to improve current methods of bone regeneration.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The development of effective biomaterials for sustained protein delivery is a crucial component of tissue engineering strategies. However, in most applications, including bone repair, the optimal balance between protein presentation in the injury site and protein release into the surrounding tissues is unknown. Herein, we introduced heparin microparticles (HMPs) into a tissue engineered construct to increase in vivo retention of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and enhance healing in femoral defects. Although HMPs induced bone regeneration, no increase in bone volume was observed, leading to further experimental and computational analysis of the effect of HMP-BMP-2 interactions on protein retention and release. Ultimately, this work provides insight into designing tunable protein-material interactions and their implications for controlling BMP-2 delivery.

PMID: 28645809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Gender-specific differential expression of exosomal miRNA in synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.

Sun, 2017-06-25 05:30
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Gender-specific differential expression of exosomal miRNA in synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.

Sci Rep. 2017 May 17;7(1):2029

Authors: Kolhe R, Hunter M, Liu S, Jadeja RN, Pundkar C, Mondal AK, Mendhe B, Drewry M, Rojiani MV, Liu Y, Isales CM, Guldberg RE, Hamrick MW, Fulzele S

Abstract
The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid. The synovial fluid exosomes share similar characteristics (size, surface marker, miRNA content) with previously described exosomes in other body fluids. MiRNA microarray analysis showed OA specific exosomal miRNA of male and female OA. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified gender-specific target genes/signaling pathways. These pathway analyses showed that female OA specific miRNAs are estrogen responsive and target TLR (toll-like receptor) signaling pathways. Furthermore, articular chondrocytes treated with OA derived extracellular vesicles had decreased expression of anabolic genes and elevated expression of catabolic and inflammatory genes. In conclusion, synovial fluid exosomal miRNA content is altered in patients with OA and these changes are gender specific.

PMID: 28515465 [PubMed - in process]

Competitive Protein Binding Influences Heparin-Based Modulation of Spatial Growth Factor Delivery for Bone Regeneration.

Fri, 2017-05-19 05:30

Competitive Protein Binding Influences Heparin-Based Modulation of Spatial Growth Factor Delivery for Bone Regeneration.

Tissue Eng Part A. 2017 Mar 24;:

Authors: Hettiaratchi MH, Chou C, Servies N, Smeekens JM, Cheng A, Esancy C, Wu R, McDevitt TC, Guldberg RE, Krishnan L

Abstract
Tissue engineering strategies involving the in vivo delivery of recombinant growth factors are often limited by the inability of biomaterials to spatially control diffusion of the delivered protein within the site of interest. The poor spatiotemporal control provided by porous collagen sponges, which are used for the clinical delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) for bone regeneration, has necessitated the use of supraphysiological protein doses, leading to inflammation and heterotopic ossification. This study describes a novel tissue engineering strategy to spatially control rapid BMP-2 diffusion from collagen sponges in vivo by creating a high-affinity BMP-2 sink around the collagen sponge. We designed an electrospun poly-ɛ-caprolactone nanofiber mesh containing physically entrapped heparin microparticles, which have been previously demonstrated to bind and retain large amounts of BMP-2. Nanofiber meshes containing 0.05 and 0.10 mg of microparticles/cm(2) demonstrated increased BMP-2 binding and decreased BMP-2 release in vitro compared with meshes without microparticles. However, when microparticle-containing meshes were used in vivo to limit the diffusion of BMP-2 delivered by using collagen sponges in a rat femoral defect, no differences in heterotopic ossification or biomechanical properties were observed. Further investigation revealed that, although BMP-2 binding to heparin microparticles was rapid, the presence of serum components attenuated microparticle-BMP-2 binding and increased BMP-2 release in vitro. These observations provide a plausible explanation for the results observed in vivo and suggest that competitive protein binding in vivo may hinder the ability of affinity-based biomaterials to modulate growth factor delivery.

PMID: 28338419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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